HYSPLIT and the Generic Reaction Set (GRS) for Ozone Formation
The Generic Reaction Set (GRS) model by Azzi (1993,1994) is a semi-empirical approach, but it is written in terms of a non-steady state chemical mechanism using the reaction rate equations for the seven species. The GRS is not limited by the photo-stationary steady-state assumption of the IER model. Unlike the IER model, the implementation of the GRS model within the framework of a meteorological transport and dispersion model is non-linear and requires adding the precursor contributions from all sources before integration. The GRS model has been evaluated by Venkatram (1994) and Tonnesen and Jeffries (1994). The core subroutines used in HYSPLIT to compute ozone formation using the GRS were developed by Martin Cope, Victoria EPA, and later modified by G.D. Hess, BMRC, BoM, Melbourne, Australia. The key to properly linking a Lagrangian model with Eulerian chemistry is the conversion of particle mass to concentration and then back to particle mass after the chemistry has been applied. The method of Stein (2000) is used in the HYSPLIT-GRS module.
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