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Office: PHI

FXUS61 KPHI 160819

Area Forecast Discussion
National Weather Service Mount Holly NJ
319 AM EST Sat Dec 16 2017


A cold frontal boundary across the Great Lakes will move
southeastward through the region today and tonight. This front will
then comes back northward through the region as a warm front on
Sunday. Another cold front will then move through the region during
the middle of next week. To end next week, an area of low pressure
will track northeast into the Great Lakes bringing a warm front
through our region.



Today, the attention turns to locations generally along and north of
Interstate 80 for snow chances. No major changes to the previous
forecast with today's event. Another mid level shortwave trough will
approach our region through the day. In response, the cold front
currently over the Great Lakes will approach the region this
afternoon. Further, the right entrance region of an upper level jet
will be over the northern half of the region. As mentioned by the
previous shift, the best synoptic scale lift should  stay north of
our region. However, models continue to indicate a ribbon of low
level frontogenesis across southern NY. This, combined with the
nearly saturated boundary layer and equivalent potential vorticity
values near or below 0 just south of the frontogenesis, indicates
there should be enough instability for some snow showers to progress
as far south as the I80 corridor. Moisture is limited, as is the
window of opportunity for any snow showers, so any accumulations are
expected to be less than an inch.

Further south, the combination of a building surface ridge over the
Coastal Plains and be further removed from any forcing, should keep
the area dry.

Forecast temperatures are below most guidance. The reason for this
is that models tend to have a warm bias the day after a fresh snow
pack. Thus, expect highs to range from the upper 20s in the southern
Poconos and NW NJ, to the lower 40s across Delmarva.



Overnight, the latest mid level short wave trough moves further away
from the region. The cold front should continue to slide south
through the region. However, by this point, models don't depict any
frontogenesis, but there should be subsidence thanks to the building
east coast ridge. Thus, expect the overnight period to be dry across
the region.

Undercut guidance considerably for overnight lows as models have had
a strong warm bias the last few nights. Though the snow pack may not
be much of an issue (much, if not all of it could melt during the
day today), clearing skies and light winds will promote radiational
cooling especially through the second half of the night.



Sunday through Monday night:

A wintry mix event is currently modeled across northern portions of
the region with moisture overruning a warm frontal boundary.
Overall, this system will be weakening as it comes northeast into
our region. Through this event, thermal profiles look to support
mainly rain across the Philadelphia area and locations to the south,
while locations further north have modeled soudings which would
yield a mixture of snow and freezing rain. This is noted in a warm
nose advecting northeast at about 925 mb throughout Sunday night
with 925 mb temperatures rising to between 1 and 2C with surface
temperatures near or below freezing. QPF does look light and under
1/10th of an inch on most models and ensembles at this time.
Generally opted temperatures Sunday toward the modeled two meter
temperatures then incorporating some of the MET/MAV/ECMWF temperature
guidance Monday and Monday night. Temperatures should rise into the
40's for most of us with lows Monday night in the 30's.

Tuesday and Tuesday night:

Our region will be between a high pressure offshore and an
approaching cold front from the west. This will result in southerly
winds and warming temperatures. Enough moisture and lift could be
present ahead of the front for some scattered rain showers. However,
the signal for precipitation is noisy on the various ensembles and
fairly limited so we will maintain slight to low chance pops. Right
now the temperature forecast is on the warmer end of the ensemble
envelope with highs well into the 50's, nighttime temperatures should
fall back into the 30's.

Wednesday through Thursday night:

After the frontal passage, we return to northwest flow with cold
air advection into the region. Another period of gusty winds is not
out of the question. With high pressure building in both days should
be mostly sunny. Right now the wind direction off the lakes looks
unfavorable for any increase in clouds or snow showers up in the
southern Poconos. Bufkit analysis shows the potential for some gusts
from the west at around 20 mph Wednesday afternoon. High
temperatures should fall back into the 40's with lows in the 20's,
opted to go on the cooler end of the ensemble guidance given the
cold air advection into the region.

Friday and Friday night:

A warm frontal boundary lifts northward across the region as a low
pressure system tracks into the Great Lakes. Another surge of
southerly flow will come into the region leading toward a moderating
trend with temperatures. This warm front will also bring some
showers with it.

Longer term:

A quick look into Christmas week does still provide the chance of a
white Christmas with an active weather pattern that looks to turn
colder thanks to a EPO which is falling several standard deviations
below normal. The - EPO will discharge cold from AK southeast into
the United States just before Christmas. However, the colder air can
dive into the western United States first leading to warmer
conditions and a typical ridge in La-Ninas over the Southeastern
United States. Exactly how this plays out is still outside the
forecast window and a lot of possibilities are in play. Be mindful
of any weather information you see about Christmas can still change
quite a bit over the next few days.


The following discussion is for KPHL, KPNE, KTTN, KABE, KRDG,
KILG, KMIV, KACY and surrounding areas.

Today...Once the patchy light fog (occasional MVFR visibility)
dissipates, expect VFR conditions for the rest of the day. There is
a small chance that snow showers along and north of I80 this
afternoon, could move as far south as KABE. If this happens, there
could be brief MVFR conditions. However, this is very unlikely so
have not included it in the TAF. Winds generally out of the west
around 10 kt. High confidence.

Tonight...VFR conditions are expected overnight. A cold front moving
through by 06Z will result in northerly or northwesterly winds, but
speeds should be 10kt or less. After 06Z, winds will likely become
light and variable. High confidence.


Sunday: VFR, winds under 10 knots. High confidence.

Sunday night: Sub-VFR possible with patchy light rain, mixed
precipitation possible at KABE, KTTN and KRDG. Winds under 10
knots. Moderate confidence.

Monday and Monday night: Mainly VFR, winds generally under 10
knots. Moderate confidence.

Tuesday through Wednesday: VFR. An isolated shower can not be ruled
out on Tuesday. Southwest wind gusts around 15 knots then shifting
to northwest and increasing to 20 knots on Wednesday. High



Winds gusting around or just above 25 kt are expected on all the
waters through at least the morning hours. On the Delaware Bay and
Delaware and southern New Jersey coastal waters, winds may drop
below small craft advisory earlier than previously expected,
possibly as early as early afternoon. However, I did not have enough
confidence to change the end time on the small craft advisory.

On the northern and central New Jersey coastal waters, though there
may be a brief lull in the winds late this afternoon, wind gusts
above 25 kt are possible behind a cold front this evening.


The main period for concern is northwesterly winds Wednesday
afternoon which may approach or briefly exceed 25 knots which may
warrant an SCA. Data is indicating seas stay below five feet
throughout the outlook period. High confidence.


MARINE...Small Craft Advisory until 1 AM EST Sunday for ANZ450>455.
     Small Craft Advisory until 6 PM EST this evening for ANZ430-


Synopsis... Gaines
Near Term...Johnson
Short Term...Johnson
Long Term...Gaines

Office: OKX FXUS61 KOKX 160541 AFDOKX Area Forecast Discussion National Weather Service New York NY 1241 AM EST Sat Dec 16 2017 .SYNOPSIS... Low pressure departs offshore. A series of weak low pressure and frontal systems will pass through the area this weekend through mid week. && .NEAR TERM /UNTIL 6 AM THIS MORNING/... Back edge of snowfall has pushed east of Long Island. Generally 1 to 2 inches fell across the NYC/NJ metro, Westchester and Fairfield CT, with 2 to 3 1/2 inches across Nassau and Suffolk Counties and portions of coastal CT. Otherwise...vigorous shortwave pivots east overnight with low pressure departing out to sea. Clearing and increasing winds are expected overnight as the pressure gradient tightens between the strengthening departing low, and strong high pressure over the SE US. Cold night with lows ranging from upper teens well inland to mid 20s at the coast. && .SHORT TERM /6 AM THIS MORNING THROUGH 6 PM SUNDAY/... Polar upper low pivots southeast into New England on Sat and offshore Saturday Night. WNW caa low flow over the Great Lakes, accompanied by shortwave lift and left front of 150 kt jet streak, should be enough to extend light snow shower activity into the region later Sat morning through Sat afternoon. A dusting is possible in spots, particularly NW hills. Otherwise, breezy and chilly on Sat with abundant cloud cover and glancing caa. Temps will likely hold in the lower to mid 30s for much of the region, with windchills in the 20s. Shortwave slides east Sat night, with high pressure building in from the west. This will have snow showers tapering from w to e early in the evening, with potential for good radiational cooling conds for outlying areas later Sat Night. Temps should fall into the teens for outlying areas, with mid-upper 20s for urban centers. && .LONG TERM /SUNDAY NIGHT THROUGH FRIDAY/... Models in good agreement with a fairly progressive upper pattern in place through this period, with a series of weak frontal systems moving through the region Sunday Night through midweek as a muted northern stream longwave trough slides from the Great Lakes into the Northeast. First system of note will be Sunday Night into Monday as the closed low currently over Baja Mexico, shears towards the NE ahead of a developing Western US trough. Models differing in the strength of this energy and amounts of moisture drawn northward, but potential exists for a light precip event Sunday night into Monday morning. Thermal profiles suggest a start as snow or wintry mix, transitioning to rain for NYC/LI, but potentially remaining a wintry mix for the interior into Monday morning. Too early for specific details on this light precip event, but potential exists for hazardous travel conditions N&NW of NYC/LI for Monday morning commute. Thereafter, models in fairly good agreement with the broad bu shallow northern stream trough approaching the region on Tuesday and sliding through during the midweek. At the surface, the primary low pressure system rides through Quebec/Ontario with trailing cold front approaching the region Tuesday Night. Overall, appears to be mainly a light qpf event for the Monday night into Tuesday evening period, due to limited interaction between northern and southern stream. Thermal profile suggests precip would be mainly liquid, but could be dealing with freezing rain across interior Monday night as cold air typically has a tough time scouring our in this setup. Upper trough swings through the NE Tue Night into Wed with a glancing shot of modifying arctic air in the wake of the cold front for Wed/Thu. Upper flow flattens and even becomes a bit ridged for Thursday ahead of the next northern stream trough digging into the Upper Plains, which should allow for a moderation in temps ahead of next potential frontal system. && .AVIATION /06Z SATURDAY THROUGH WEDNESDAY/... Low pressure departs to the east overnight as a trough approaches Saturday. VFR conditions have returned as skies clear. Expect increasing clouds during the day Saturday. Ceilings between 3-5 KFT expected from late morning through the afternoon. Local MVFR or IFR conditions cannot be ruled out in snow showers. Westerly winds 5 to 10 kt increase continue early this morning. Occasional gusts to around 20 kt are possible, mainly across NYC metro terminals. After 12-14Z, westerly winds increase to 15 to 20 kt, with gusts 20 to 30 kt. Gusts become less frequent after 20-21Z. By evening, winds turn to the NW and diminish. .OUTLOOK FOR 06Z SUNDAY THROUGH WEDNESDAY... .Late tonight...VFR. .SUN...VFR during the day. Chance MVFR in a mix of -RA/-SN towards midnight. .MON...Low chance MVFR in -RA for coastal terminals, light wintry mix inland. Improvement as the day progresses. .TUE...MVFR possible with a slight chance of showers. .WED...VFR. NW winds G20-30KT. && .MARINE... SCA conds will quickly develop from W to E overnight and continue through Sat, with the potential for occasional gale force gusts on mainly the ocean waters late tonight through Saturday morning. Winds and waves diminish below SCA Saturday night as high pressure builds in. Next chance for SCA conditions possibly as early as late Tuesday/Tue eve ahead of approaching cold front, but higher likelihood of widespread SCA Tuesday Night through Wednesday night with tight pressure gradient and strong caa in wake of cold front. Gales are possible during this time frame. && .HYDROLOGY... No significant hydrologic impacts expected. && .EQUIPMENT... NYC NOAA Weather Radio Station KWO-35 (162.55 MHz) is off the air for an extended period of time. && .OKX WATCHES/WARNINGS/ADVISORIES... CT...None. NY...None. NJ...None. MARINE...Small Craft Advisory until 7 PM EST this evening for ANZ330- 335-338-340-345. Small Craft Advisory until 1 AM EST Sunday for ANZ350-353-355. && $$